PolypStim FAQ's

What is the PolypStim Technology Platform?

PolypStim uses standard endoscopes as a carrier to delivery bioelectric signals to polyps, cysts and fibroids to accelerate their shrinkage, prevent their reoccurrence, accelerate healing and also reduce bleeding, inflammation and pain.

How does the PolypStim Technology work?

They PolypStim technology is in earlier stage development so we cannot actually claim whether it works to not yet but the principal is to delivery specific bioelectric signals to cause the release of specific proteins.  These controlled protein releases are designed to cause a body to attack the polyps, cysts of fibroids, to starve them of blood supply and to stop their cell division thus shrinking them.  Other signals promote inflammation reduction, healing and pain relief.   Bioelectric signaling has successfully been demonstrated to reduce cancer tumor size in studies conducted by other groups for both brain cancer (Novocure) and skin cancer (Pulsed Biosciences).

What is a polyp?

A polyp is a lump that forms in the inner lining of the colon. The lining of a healthy colon is continually updating itself, replacing older cells, as they break down, with new ones. The old cells are then sloughed off into the stool. If something disturbs the normal sloughing process, an abnormal group of these older cells can collect and form a polyp.

Are there different kinds of polyps?

Yes. Most polyps remain small and harmless – we call these hyperplastic polyps. But some develop other abnormalities and begin to grow unchecked – these are called adenomatous polyps. We refer to adenomatous polyps as pre-cancerous polyps because they are not cancerous yet, but they have the potential to become cancerous. Given enough time to grow and develop, some adenomatous polyps can spread into surrounding tissues and infiltrate the two highway systems of the body: the bloodstream and the lymph nodes. This ability to invade and spread, or metastasize, is how we define a cancer.

Does having a polyp mean that I will get cancer?

No, but it does increase your risk. Most polyps – even the adenomatous type – do not turn into cancer. However, nearly all colorectal cancers that do develop start out as polyps. That’s why we remove all polyps when we find them during screenings. Removing a polyp early makes sure that it will never have the chance to turn into cancer. People who have had polyps in the past are more likely to form additional polyps – that increases the risk of a future cancer and makes regular screenings even more important.

Can you tell after you remove a polyp whether or not it’s the kind that would have turned into cancer?

Yes – all polyps are tested after they are removed, and the tests determine what types of polyps they are.

Why do some people get polyps while others don’t?

That’s currently unknown, which is why regular screening is important for everybody.

How long does it take a polyp to turn into a cancer?

Generally, it’s about a 10- to 15-year process, which explains why getting a colonoscopyscreening once every 10 years is sufficient for most people. However, this chain of events may occur faster in people with hereditary colorectal cancer syndromes. For these people and others at high risk for colorectal cancer, more frequent screening is usually advised.

Can a high-fiber diet prevent polyps?

While a diet high in fiber is beneficial on multiple levels and highly encouraged, the research to date has not been able to prove an association with reduced risk of polyps or colorectal cancer.

Is there any way to prevent polyps from forming?

For people who have had colorectal cancer, a low-dose “baby” aspirin (81mg) once a day may reduce the risk of developing new adenomatous polyps and cancers. Another anti-inflammatory called celecoxib (Celebrex) also is used to reduce the risk of polyps and cancer in people with an inherited condition called familial adenomatous polyposis, or FAP. Studies are currently underway to determine whether or not people at average risk of colon cancer would benefit from these or other preventive medicines.
Until we learn more, there may not be much you can do to prevent the formation of polyps, but there is plenty you can do to prevent them from becoming cancerous. I may sound like a broken record, but it bears repeating: Regular colorectal cancer screenings give you the best possible chance of finding polyps and removing them before they ever have the chance to turn into cancer. This important step, plus three others – getting regular exercise, maintaining a healthy weight and avoiding tobacco – could prevent as much as 90 percent of all colorectal cancer. That’s music to my ears.

Frequently Asked Questions About Ovarian Cysts
  • An ovarian cyst starts developing once an ovarian follicle fails to rupture and release an egg cell, as the fluid that remains eventually forms the cyst
  • While most ovarian cysts aren’t cancerous, some can lead to cancer
  • Endometriomas (ovarian cysts caused by endometriosis) and ovarian cysts prompted by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can affect a woman’s fertility
Q: What does an ovarian cyst feel like?
A: Patients with ovarian cysts often feel pain in the abdomen and/or pelvis — this is a known symptom of this disease. Other indicators of ovarian cysts include discomfort during or after sexual intercourse or before the menstrual cycle begins or ends, abdominal bloating or swelling, pain when passing stool,  irregular menstrual cycles and painful periods that are heavier or lighter than normal.
Q: Do ovarian cysts cause bleeding?
A: In some cases, ovarian cysts can prompt bleeding, especially if the patient has a ruptured ovarian cyst. This condition occurs when the cyst bursts, causing bleeding within the pelvis as the cyst increases in size.
Q: How long does ovarian cyst pain last?
A: Most ovarian cysts go away on their own after two or three menstrual cycles, so the pain can last throughout the said timeframe. If the cyst is large and doesn’t go away after the three menstrual cycles, the pain can continue and the cyst/s might need to be treated or removed via a surgery.
Q: Are ovarian cysts genetic?
A: There is no scientific link proving that genetics can be a factor in ovarian cyst development. However, as Tamra Orr notes in her book “Ovarian Tumors and Cysts,” environmental and genetic factors can affect a woman’s risk for developing ovarian cysts.
Q: Can ovarian cysts cause infertility?
A: Yes. Endometriomas (ovarian cysts caused by endometriosis) and ovarian cysts prompted by polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) can affect a woman’s fertility. However, there is still no definite link between these types of cysts and infertility itself, but rather just a potential for infertility to occur.
Q: Can ovarian cysts lead to cancer?
A: While most ovarian cysts aren’t cancerous, some can lead to cancer.6 For instance, there are cysts that may indicate an early form of ovarian cancer. This is why, in some cases, a gynecologist may advise that a cyst be removed via a surgical procedure such as a laparoscopy or a laparotomy. The earlier the cyst is removed, the lower its risk of becoming cancerous in the future.
Q: How do you test for ovarian cysts?
A: A pelvic ultrasound, CA 125 blood test, pregnancy test or a laparoscopy (although this can also serve as a procedure to remove the cyst) are some of the diagnostic tests recommended for ovarian cysts. These are usually suggested after a gynecologist performs a physical exam on the patient and checks for certain features present in the ovarian cyst.
Q: How do you get rid of an ovarian cyst?
A: There are natural treatments you can utilize if you want to prevent or treat ovarian cysts. These include:
• Herbs like Maca root, beetroot and milk thistle seed
• Supplements containing B vitamins and Brassica vegetable extracts
• Home remedies like Epsom salts and apple cider vinegar
• Essential oils like borage, black currant, evening primrose and castor
Frequently Asked Questions About Fibroids
Uterine fibroids are benign growths that develop in the wall of the uterus. These growths affect roughly three out of four women, according to the Mayo Clinic. While these growths do not always cause symptoms, several treatment options are available for women who do experience discomfort or other complications. The following questions about fibroids are ones that are commonly asked.
Uterine Fibroids

What Causes Fibroids?

The underlying cause of fibroids isn’t known, but researchers believe that hormones and genetics might increase the risk of developing these growths. Women who are thought to be at higher risk include those with a family history of fibroids, those who begin menstruation early and those who consume a high amount of red meat. Hormones can also affect fibroid growth. The production of estrogen and progesterone can increase fibroid growth, while a decrease in these hormones can cause them to shrink.

Are Fibroids Dangerous?

Fibroids are mostly benign or non-cancerous. According to the Office on Women’s Health, the chance of having a cancerous fibroid is lower than one in 1,000 and the presence of benign fibroids does not lead to a higher risk of developing a cancerous fibroid. Fibroids usually don’t cause health issues, although they can cause pain in some cases or result in anemia from blood loss. For women who want to conceive, it’s important to note that fibroids can interfere with implantation in some cases. Women with fibroids who become pregnant might also have problems, such as a breech baby or preterm delivery.

What Are the Symptoms of Fibroids?

Uterine fibroids typically don’t cause any noticeable symptoms, but some women do experience one or more of the following:
  • Heavy bleeding during menstruation
  • Pain during menstruation
  • Enlarged lower abdomen
  • Frequent need to urinate
  • Pressure in the pelvis
  • Pain in the lower back or legs
  • Constipation or trouble emptying the bladder
The exact symptoms and the severity of these symptoms depends on where fibroids are located, how large they are, and how many are present. Fibroids inside the uterus’ inner cavity can cause menstruation problems and difficulty conceiving, while those outside of the uterus can cause bladder problems or lower back pain. Fibroids that develop inside the uterine wall can lead to heavy menstrual bleeding, as well as a feeling of pressure.

What Types of Fibroid Treatment Options Are There?

Uterine fibroids don’t necessarily require fibroid treatment. In many cases, women who are not experiencing symptoms take a “wait and see approach”. For those who are having pain or other symptoms, there are several treatment options available. Some of these include:


Medications such as gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists or a progestin-releasing intrauterine device help regulate hormones that affect fibroids. This can relieve symptoms, although they do not get rid of fibroids.

Uterine fibroid embolization

This minimally invasive procedure involves placing a catheter with embolic agents inside the arteries connected to the uterus. These agents block the flow of blood to fibroids, which causes them to shrink.


This procedure offers a permanent way to get rid of uterine fibroids, but it is considered major surgery. It is not intended for women who wish to conceive, and there are certain risks associated with it, such as excessive bleeding and infection.


Robotic or laparoscopic myomectomy is another minimally invasive option for removing fibroids while leaving the uterus in place. While this procedure can be done for women who wish to conceive, fibroids can end up coming back.
If you would like more fibroids information, including treatment options, please contact The Fibroid Treatment Collective.
Frequently asked questions about complex polypectomies

What makes a polypectomy complex or difficult?

Colonoscopy has become an accepted screening and surveillance modality for colorectal cancer, and endoscopic polypectomy has been widely adopted as an effective therapeutic tool. Most gastroenterologists can endoscopically excise the majority of polyps found on a routine colonoscopy. Polyp size, location and morphology, however, are characteristics that can make endoscopic excision more challenging. Sessile or pedunculated polyps greater than 2 centimeters in diameter, as well as flat or depressed polyps, fall into this category.
Additional characteristics that can also make polyp excision difficult include:
  • Location within a colonic flexure or behind a fold that is difficult to access
  • Location within an area of severe diverticulosis, involving the ileocecal valve or appendiceal orifice, or in intimate contact with the dentate line
  • Polyp wrapped around a fold in a clamshell fashion
  • Polyp occupying more than one-third of the colonic circumference
  • Polyp crossing over two haustral folds
  • Scarred residual polyp from prior attempts at resection

Is the polyp benign or malignant?

Visual inspection during colonoscopy can help establish whether a polyp is benign or malignant. Ominous signs that the polyp likely contains invasive malignancy include ulceration, induration, a depressed center and friability. However, up to 10 to 15 percent of large polyps without these characteristics harbor invasive carcinoma. Enhanced imaging using electronic (for example, narrow band imaging) or dye-assisted (for example, indigo carmine) chromoscopy is useful in identifying vascular and mucosal pit patterns that are suggestive of deeper malignant invasion precluding endoscopic resection.

Which polyps are amenable to endoscopic mucosal resection or bioelectric treatment or both?

Colonic endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) consists of submucosal fluid injection to lift the polyp from the muscularis propria followed by snare resection of the lesion en bloc (in one piece) or in a piecemeal fashion. Although dedicated mucosectomy devices, such as cap- or band-assisted EMR, are commonly utilized in the esophagus and stomach, they are avoided in the thin-walled colon due to the high risk of perforation. When compared with surgical excision, EMR offers preservation of the colon, and decreased morbidity and cost. Removal via EMR is generally recommended for polyps that cannot be removed by simple polypectomy and when deep malignant invasion is not entertained.
EMR is appropriate for all noninvasive polyps of any size and for superficial T1a lesions with these characteristics:
  • Diameter < 2 cm (which can be removed en bloc)
  • Favorable histologic features, which suggest a low risk of lymph node spread, such as a well-differentiated grade of tumor, limited invasion into the submucosal layer (< 1,000 µm) and lack of lymphovascular invasion
Characteristics that make a lesion unsuitable for EMR include evidence of deep invasion, such as induration, ulceration, and the nonlifting sign in the absence of prior biopsy or cautery use during submucosal fluid injection.
Lesions extending over haustral folds can be excised endoscopically by more experienced operators, depending on whether there is adequate submucosal lift. EMR can also be considered for lesions that involve to some extent the appendiceal orifice or ileocecal valve, but these require specialized techniques and expertise.
Bioelectric treatment is recommended in particular for any polyp that cannot easily be dissected with traditional means.  It is also recommended after any polyp removal by any means to accelerate healing, reduce pain and to reduce bleeding and to potentially reduce reoccurrence.  Bioelectric therapy is still under investigation and is not yet proven to be either safe or effective.

Which lesions are amenable to endoscopic submucosal dissection?

Originally pioneered in Japan for the treatment of early gastric cancer, endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) has since been applied to the treatment of large sessile and flat neoplastic colonic lesions. Given its labor-intensive nature and technical complexity, ESD should be reserved for lesions where there is clear clinical benefit.
ESD uses an electrosurgical cutting device or knife to dissect the deeper layers of the submucosa to remove neoplastic mucosal lesions. This approach facilitates en bloc resection of large lesions, which are generally amenable only to piecemeal resection by EMR. In addition to allowing for accurate histologic evaluation, en bloc resection is associated with a lower recurrence rate when compared with piecemeal resection by EMR.

Who should treat complex polyps?

Complex polypectomies require experienced endoscopists, appropriate accessories and knowledgeable support staff. Current research data suggest that in experienced hands, endoscopic resection of complex polyps results in improved morbidity and mortality, and a reduction in medical costs.
What causes Polyps?